The Hall of Church History is an excellent site for an overview of church history. There are a number of particular emphases that may be read about, including Baptists. Below is an introduction into the Baptist history from their site. Be sure to click on the “Baptists” link above and take a look around at some of their articles.
The Baptists derive from two different streams. Particular Baptists usually claim a line of descent that goes back to the Reformers. General Baptists and Landmark Baptists trace their descent from the Anabaptists. The Baptists are probably the most diverse of all denominations. The Particular Baptists have produced several fine theologians, including John Gill, James P. Boyce, and J. L. Dagg. Augustus Strong, another well-known Baptist theologian, was an Amyraldian (four-point Calvinist). Baptists in the twentieth century have predominantly leaned toward the more Arminian theology of the General Baptists, but the tide may be turning, as is evidenced by the growing influence of the Calvinistic Southern Baptist Founders Conference, and the growth of the Reformed Baptist churches.